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Kasauli Travel Guide:

Introduction
Kasauli is a cantonment town in Solan district in the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh. The town is home to Kasauli Brewery. The cantonment was established in 1842 as a Colonial hill station. It is located 77 km from Shimla, 65 km from Chandigarh and 50 km from Panchkula and is situated at a height of 1800 meters.

Geography
Kasauli is located at 30°54'N 76°58'E? / ?30.9°N 76.96°E? / 30.9; 76.96. It has an average elevation of 1795 metres (5889 feet).

Central Research Institute
History: in the early years of the present century the Sanitary Commissioner with the Government of India initiated a scheme for the establishment of a Bacteriological Department and a Central Institute for Medical Research in India. This scheme met with approval of the Government of India and in 1904 work was commenced on what is now the Central Research Institute of India.

The Institute was located at Kasauli, in the Simla Hills, about 6,000 feet above sea level. The Maharaja of Patiala and the then existing residential buildings were modified extended and suitably adopted for laboratory use presented the original site. In 1933 further extensive alterations were made and laboratories constructed on modern lines, provided. These laboratories were further added to when, in 1939, the functions of the Pasteur Institute of India, were incorporated with those of the Central Research Institute. In 1946 the Government of India accepted a scheme for the expansion of the Institute in principle. This necessitated re-modeling of the main building, the acquisition of neighbouring sites and the erection of new buildings. Building operations in connection with this scheme were commenced in 1947, but owing to unsettled conditions, transport and other difficulties, these were not completed according to schedule, within the year.

The Central Research Institute was opened in 1906 under the Directorship of Lieut.-Colonel, later Sir David Semple (1906–1913) who was succeeded by Lieut.-Colonel W.F.Harvey (1913–1925), Colonel Sir Sammuel Rickard Christophers (1925–1932), Major-General Sir John Taylor (1932–1944) and Lieut.-Colonel H.W.Mulligan (May 1944-1947). After this Lieut.-Colonel M.L.Ahuja took over as Ist Indian Director of the Institute.

Functions: It was originally intended that the Institute should provide facilities for research work on problems of medical and public health interest, manufacture of vaccine and sera, training of selected officers and to act as a centre on which inquiries in the field could be based. Sections were formed for bacteriology, malariology, helminthology, entomology and manufacture of biological products.

The activities of the Institute have varied from time to time, depending on the experience and the specialized knowledge of members of the staff. Immunological problems have always been the main subject of research, but other problems, both in the laboratory and the field, have not been neglected and much attention has been paid to such subjects as medical entomology, malaria, kala-azar, cholera, rabies, etc. Of recent years, however, and particularly during and since World War II, activities, have been restricted, more and more, to routine duties chiefly connected with the manufacture, assay and maintenance of vaccines and sera, for which there have been ever-increasing demands.

War effort: During the first World War supplies of prophylactic vaccines to the Army in India, Egypt, Mesopootamia, etc., were about one lakh doses per month, which at that time constituted a record in production. During the war years 1939-1946 manufacture of vaccines and sera reached the unprecedented total of one million doses monthly. The Institute met all demands for its biological products from the Defence Services in India, Burma and the theatres of war, civil authorities and Indian States, in full. In addition valuable research work was carried out in connection with the production of essential commodities not available from abroad, owing to war-time difficulties in transport, e.g. surgical ligatures, laboratory stains, etc. The year 1947 was a critical one for the Institute. With the change over of Government , the nstitute has, for the first time in its history, an Indian Director and also a wholly Indian staff. Changes occurred early in the year, Lieuut. – Colonel W.J. Webster, who for almost 13 years had been Senior Assistant Director, retired on 31 December 1946. Other European Officers of the I.M.S. proceeded on leave prior to retirement – Captain R. Passmore and Captain P.J.Wormald in January, Lieut. – Colonel H.W.Mulligan in May, Major C.L.Greening in July and Major T.Sommerville in August. With the exception of Colonel Mulligan, whose place was taken by the present Director, all these posts remained unfilled throughout the year.

This and the sudden depletion of the subordinate staff owing to “partition” threw an unexpected strain on the Institute. Disturbed conditions, threatening epidemics, exceptional demands for vaccines for refugee camps, transport difficulties, heavy rains resulting in floods, inability to get sheep for the preparation of antirabic and other vaccines, all added to the mental and physical strain of members of the staff. Nevertheless, over one and quarter million doses of vaccines were issued in the month of October 1947, constituting an all-time record in the history of the Institute. This was in spite of the fact that owing to remodeling work going on at the Institute, manufacture for several preceding months had been greatly reduced and reserves of vaccines were therefore low. Had it not been for this last factor the Institute may well have doubled this figure during the emergency. It is not, however, suggested that output on such a scale could have been maintained for any great length of time, for boilers and sterilizers cannot be kept in continuous use without damage to their fabric, even if human efforts were equal to the strain.

Research: In the circumstances it was inevitable that research work should be relegated to the background. Nevertheless, immediately conditions improved and inquiry into the comparative values of antirabic vaccines was commenced and by the end of the year interesting results obtained. In addition, during the year. Dr. C.B.D’Silva commenced studies on the chromogenic strains of acid-fact bacilli isolated from convalescent cases of pulmonary tuberculosis and also isolated a strain of tubercle bacillus which appears to be non-pathogenic to guinea-pigs. These experiments conducted in 1947 will be published in due course [ Is it time would you think, as over 60 years have gone by since that research, to get it published now ? ]. Work was undertaken by Dr. D.L.Shrivastava in collaboration with Mr. P.Bruce White in the earlier months of the year on the serological variations of V.cholerae and El Tor vibrios are grown in broth containing type-specific serum they quite readily yield cultures of the Inaba subtype. It had not been possible to induce similar change in the Inaba subtype. A considerable amount of work had also been done on the isolation of several chemical fractions from various strains of vibros. The results of the study were published in the July 1947 issue of the Indian Journal of Medical Research.

Kimmughat
Kimmughat is only three km before Kasauli on the main road.One can shop at Pinekonez for exclusive souvenirs of Kasauli and customise gifts for their friends. One gets a feeling of rural himachal with walls painted with local mud and lush green location and melodious sounds of the birds chirping and wind chimes.

Gurudwara Shri Guru Nanak Ji
This historical Sikh Gurudwara is located in Gharkhal bazaar on the main road towards Kasauli. There's lodging facilities available here. Apart from the daily prayers, a programme is held every Sunday morning. Another Sikh gurudwara is located on the other side of Kasauli ridge on the Kasauli-Mashobra (old Hindustan-Tibet) Road near the Air Force Radar Station

Education
Educational institutions include the Lawrence School Sanawar,The Pinegrove School,Dharampurand St. Mary's Convent School Kasauli. All these schools are co-educational and affiliated to the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE). Lawrence School is a boarding school while St. Mary's has a boarding facility for girls and accepts local boys and girls as day scholars.

Sanawar, which is 6 km from Kasauli, has the Lawrence school, which is easily over 160 years old and was started by Sir Henry Lawrence. Sanawar is an institution of international repute.It is the oldest co-educational school in the world. There is one more school which is situated near to manki point and name of that institute is K.V. Air Force Station, Kasauli also affiliated to CBSE board.

Central Research Institute, Kasauli is a premier National Institute, was established in 1905 for caters research work in the field of Biological Science. The 105-year-old Central Research Institute playing vital role to save the life of human-beings by manufacturing and providing vaccines against several diseases to the nation.